- Ad hoc market research
One-off market research that involves surveying end users.
Services offered to advertisers to enhance their brands through association with digital content.
- Amateur professional
Content created by individuals who aspire to sell their content.
Refers to manufacturers of home appliances (not including computing devices) that provide access to digital content (e.g. radio, television).
- Audience ratings
Companies that provide standardized data that benchmarks relative traffic on various digital media platforms. This data is typically used by advertisers so they can make decisions about where they place their advertising dollars.
- B2C distributor
B2C distributors are the final piece of the digital content value chain. These companies sell digital content directly to the consumer or use advertising to generate revenue from its audience.
- B2B enabler
A company that provides technology or services that facilitate the distribution of digital content.
- B2B software
Refers to companies that develop software for use by either an enterprise or third party developers. Categories include:
- Development – refers to companies that develop customized software for their customers.
- Platform – refers to software that is used as a platform for third parties to develop value-added software. These companies often publish an open API.
- Software license – refers to companies that offer enterprise software that can be installed as is or with little customization.
- Carrier services
Provides technology and services for mobile carriers and other network providers.
Allows storage and playback of media that a user already owns.
Provides tools for content creators to collaborate on the production of digital media.
- Consumer software
A business model by which content is bundled with consumer software.
- Content delivery network
A system of computers containing copies of data placed at various nodes of a network improving access to the data it caches by increasing access bandwidth and redundancy and reducing access latency.
- Content management system
Used for storing, controlling, revising, semantically enriching, and publishing digital media.
- Copyright management
Services that help content creators register copyrights and identify unauthorized use of their copyrighted materials.
A company or individual that creates digital media and/or owns the related rights.
- Crowd fund
Refers to content that is underwritten by consumers in advance of production.
- Data analytics
Technology to analyze online traffic and users.
- Deposit account
Represents an account by which the user deposits a specific dollar amount that is decremented for every purchase. If the user wants to buy additional content, they must pay more. While deposit accounts can be analogous to a debit card, some deposit accounts require a monthly fee and the content is available on a “use it or lose it” basis. This business model should not be confused with a “subscription” which allows for unlimited usage.
- Device sale
Pertains to content being bundled into the sale of a device.
- Device services
Technology that provides added functionality or efficiency for device manufacturers.
Represents an interface by which content can be accessed using devices that are not commonly used to get online. Examples include GPS devices, radios and televisions.
- Digital radio
Online or mobile non-interactive streaming; typically applies to music.
Allows users to download content for future playback on an unlimited basis. Content without digital rights management (DRM) can be transferred to and accessed on any device without restrictions.
Indicates that money is made through the online sale of physical goods.
- Flat rate/unit
A B2B business model whereby a company is compensated for each unit sold rather than for a percentage of sales.
Refers to companies that manufacture and distribute physical goods for content creators.
- Funding services
Companies that raise money for content creators.
This can apply to games that are either sold directly to consumers or used by B2C distributors to attract and retain customers.
- Game console
Computing devices which are primarily devoted to games. Some game consoles enable users to directly access digital content in addition to the games themselves. Platforms include:
- Microsoft Xbox
- Sony Playstation
Organizations that exist to protect the rights of content creators. These organizations are typically operated as not-for-profits. Categories include
- Artist association – organizations that exist to protect the rights of individual content creators.
- Government organization – established by government to protect rightsholders either domestically or internationally.
- Industry association – represents the interests of companies within an industry.
- Rights society – established to collect royalties for content creators.
- Group buying
Group buying, also known as collective buying, offers products and services at significantly reduced prices on the condition that a minimum number of buyers would make the purchase.
Refers to non-desktop/laptop computing devices including:
- MP3 players
- Mobile phones
- Smart phones
Supports the intake of digital content for later distribution to users. Categories of ingestion include:
- DRM – digital rights management software used to protect content from unauthorized use.
- Encoding – enables future recognition of content to ensure proper tracking and compensation to content creators.
Audio or video streamed at a location for the enjoyment of customers. Examples include retail stores, bars, restaurants and hotels.
A committed terminal to access digital media on location (e.g. jukebox).
Refers to companies that provide litigation services for content creators, as well as digital media and technology platform companies.
- Licensing services
Refers to services that facilitate the licensing of digital content for purposes other than direct sales to consumers. Examples of licensees include film and television producers, advertisers and brands. These services can be offered through either online exchanges or offline promotion activities.
This refers to access to digital media at a specific retail location. Categories include:
- Kiosks – a committed terminal to access digital media (e.g. jukebox).
- In-store – audio or video streamed at a location for the enjoyment of customers. Examples include retail stores, bars, restaurants and hotels.
- Market data
Companies that provide data to help companies make better decisions about how to market content. Categories include:
- Ad hoc market research – custom research that involves surveying consumers on a one-off basis.
- Audience ratings – data that benchmarks traffic on various digital media platforms.
- Market share – data that analyzes purchases of digital media relative to similar forms of content.
- Marketing tools
Provides tools for content creators to market their content online. Categories of marketing tools includes:
- Data analytics – technology to analyze traffic and user behavior.
- Direct marketing – tools to market content to consumers.
- Social media services – tools to reach out to consumers via commonly available social media platforms.
- Media server
Refers to storage units that provide local network access to digital media.
Flash drives or other forms of memory devices.
- Metadata services
Technology and services that provide detailed information for individual pieces of digital content.
Refers to methods to directly monetize content. Categories include:
- Payment app – application to process payments by consumers.
- Storefront – tools for content creators to create their own online presence.
- Syndication – technology and services that distribute content to B2C distributors for sale to consumers.
- White label – technology that enables third parties (not B2C distributors or content creators) to set up their own branded digital media stores. These companies typically provide turn-key solutions including pre-cleared content and royalty processing thus minimizing the work for third parties while allowing them to leverage their own brand.
- On demand stream
Allows users to select specific audio or video for playback on an interactive basis.
Refers to access through a connected (as opposed to mobile) device. Categories include:
- Desktop app – accessible through and application that must be downloaded to a user’s connected device.
- Web – content that is accessible through a basic web browser.
Peer-to-peer software that enables individuals to share content. This feature is often considered to support copyright violations, but it can also provide efficient transfer of data.
- Payment app
Refers to applications that enable payment processing from consumers. These apps can be used to help content creators transact on third party B2C distributor sites (e.g. Facebook)
- Pay-per-use (rent)
Refers to an on demand stream or view with limited duration access.
- Pay-what-you want
This feature encourages users to pay content creators whatever amount they believe the content is worth. This feature is analogous to a “tip jar”.
A device that is attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host.
This feature represents the storing of streamed content for later playback. This can be done through software (e.g. podcasts) or hardware (e.g digital video recorders).
Services typically offered on a one-off basis. The price for these services is usually based on hours worked. This is a common business model for consultants and software developers.
This refers to services – typically offline – offered to content creators to individually promote their talents.
Allows users to post questions for other users to answer.
Provides recommendations for users on specific content. This can be done by other users (i.e. social) or on an automated basis through algorithms.
- Revenue share
Indicates that a company charges content creators a percentage of sales.
- Rights management
A company that processes royalties from B2C distributors and remits those royalties to content creators.
- Royalty processing
Technology ensuring that content creators are properly and efficiently compensated for their copyrighted content. Categories include:
- Copyright management – helps content creators register copyrights and identify unauthorized use of their copyrighted materials.
- Rights management – processes royalties from B2C distributors for payment to content creators.
A business model by which technology (Software as a Service) or services are offered on a subscription basis, typically for a monthly or annual charge.
- Set up cost
Represents a one-off charge by B2B enablers, typically followed by recurring fees such as unit sales, revenue share or subscriptions.
- Set top box
An information appliance device that generally contains a tuner and connects to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen or other display device.
- Social app
Refers to a B2C distributor application that integrates with commonly available social services such as Facebook or Twitter. This category does not pertain to companies that simply use Facebook or Twitter to market their services or communicate with their customers.
- Social media services
Tools designed to help content creators reach out to consumers via commonly available social media platforms.
- Software license
Applies to one-off compensation for the use of software (as opposed to SaaS/subscription).
Tools for content creators to create their own online presence.
- Strategy/operations consulting
Services that enhance quality and efficiency for content creators, as well as digital media and technology platform companies. These services are typically offered on a one-off project basis.
Refers to unlimited access to digital content for a fee paid on a regular basis (typically monthly or annually).
Technology and services that distribute content to B2C distributors for sale to consumers.
- Virtual currency
Virtual currency (or in-game currency depending on environment) is used to purchase virtual goods within a variety of online communities including social networking sites, virtual worlds and online gaming sites.
- Virtual reality
Applies to computer-simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds.
- White label
B2B technology and services that enable third parties (not content creators on B2C distributors) to set up their own branded digital media stores. These companies typically provide turn-key solutions including pre-cleared content and royalty processing thus minimizing the work for third parties, while allowing them to leverage their own brand.